Books By Author
C-D


Books:

Summary: In Citizens Plus, Alan Cairns unravels the historical record to clarify the current impasse in negotiations between Aboriginal peoples and the state. We are battered by contending visions, he argues—a revised assimilation policy that finds its support in the Reform Party is countered by the nation-to-nation vision, which frames our future as coexisting solitudes. Citizens Plus stakes out a middle ground, supporting constitututional and institutional arrangements that recognize both Aboriginal differences and our common citizenship. (Summary provided by UBC Press. For a complete review of this book, click here.)


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Summary: This book draws a comparison between national identity in Europe and the Third World by considering a range of cultural materials and engaging literary texts. The author explores historical periods of nation building in Europe (Early Modernism) and the postcolonial world (post-1945 decolonization) to demonstrate that similar circumstances of imperial rule, linguistic diversity, and educational systemization facilitated the emergence of national consciousness in both European and non-European countries. ¶ The author describes the impact of New World colonial encounters on Spanish and English national formation and self-conception by drawing on postcolonial studies to read Shakespeare and Lope de Vega. This book is the first to investigate the intertextuality of El Nuevo Mundo (Spain, 1601) and The Tempest (England, 1611). Turning to Ousmane Sembene and Salman Rushdie, this study shows how their finest novels "write back" to the European tradition of Lope and Shakespeare and simultaneously represent the trend of postcolonial literature from assertive anticolonial nationalism to postmodern national critique. ¶ Tracing developments in the study of nationalism and literature from Louis Althusser and Benedict Anderson through Frederic Jameson, Homi Bhabha, and Partha Chatterjee, the book's introduction serves as a guide to a central problem in contemporary cultural studies for the general reader or the specialized scholar. [A. Carey-Webb]


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Summary: Chatterji explains the transformation of an anti-British religiously-based nationalism in Bengal, a Muslim-minority region of India, toward a communalism centered on the idea of a Muslim-free Hindu homeland. Chatterji challenges the existing literature by demonstrating that Partition was not the result of the separatist politics of Muslim minorities, but was also heavily influenced Hindu fears of Muslim rule. She argues that one cannot explain Partition by claiming that it was imposed by the center and shows that the Bengalis were politically mobilized in favor of Partiton. Ultimately, Chatterji demonstrates that Bengal was a stratified and fragmented society which was increasingly concerned with narrow, parochial concerns rather than issues important to the mainstream of Indian nationalism. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: Reacting largely to Benedict Anderson and a perception of the literature on nationalism as Eurocentric, Chatterjee sets out to demonstrate that nationalism in Bengal and India was not constructed according to a European model or even in direct reaction to a European model. Chaterjee claims that cultural national identity in these places pre-dated any nationalist political action directed against the imperialist powers. Instead, cultural identity was divided into spiritual and material realms. According to Chaterjee, the material identity was largely determined in relationship with colonial powers and it has been confused by many, including Anderson, as the dominant strain of national identity. The spiritual area was comprised of cultural content and was completely separate from any discourse with the colonialists. This spiritual identity provided the building blocks for later nationalist movements. According to Chatterjee, the middle classes were the primary proponents of nationalism in the region being studied. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: The aim of this book is to help us to act well in the face of nationalist politics. To this end, it focuses on the responses to nationalism of eight prominent thinkers: Karl Marx, the socialist Rosa Luxemburg, the anti-imperialist revolutionary Frantz Fanon, the liberal pluralist Isaiah Berlin, the Scottish left-nationalist Tom Nairn, the pessimistic post-colonial writer V.S. Naipaul, the Palestinian literary theoretician Edward Said, and, above all, the political theorist Hannah Arendt.

Why these thinkers in particular? Joan Cocks says that she selected them primarily for the deft manner in which they handled "the conceptual antinomies that crowd this field" (12). But an almost equally important criterion was their personal entanglements in the issues raised by nationalism: entanglements that forced each of them to grapple with the national question.

In her analysis of these thinkers’ reflections on nationalist politics, Cocks pursues three goals: (i) "to understand the disparate tendencies of thought that inform a sympathy for ethnonationalism, a sympathy for heterogeneous political community, and sometimes a contradictory sympathy for both," (ii) "to dive for pearls among the wreckage of old universalist ideas in order to help crystallize a new way of linking an appreciation of cultural particularity and variety to a feeling of solidarity across ‘difference’ lines," and (iii) "to consider how nonparticipants might judge and act in response to ventures in ethnic cleansing" (3).

Cocks places special emphasis on the ambiguities of concepts developed in attempts to understand nationalism, and on the dilemmatic nature of actions taken under the guidance of these concepts. This emphasis may be the book’s most important contribution. [Tom Donahue]


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Summary: By avoiding a focus on a specific class, Colley provides an account of the development of British identity between 1707 (Treaty of Union with Scotland) which does not fall into the top-down pattern established by most theories of nationalism. Colley argues that it was largely the experience of conflict during the period between 1707 and 1837 which helped establish British identity. She argues that this conflict allowed Britons to define themselves in opposition to a "them." The Britons defined themselves as a single people "not because of any political or cultural consensus at home, but rather as a reaction to the Other beyond their shores."(6) [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: Conversi has produced a systematic study of two peripheral national movements that have developed along different paths to modernity, though their roots lay in rebellion against the same state entity- Spain. Influenced greatly by the works of Anthony Smith, Conversi has successfully undertaken the task of navigating the development of contemporary Basque and Catalan nationalism as a counterpoint to the turmoils of the Spanish nation-building process. Central to Conversi’s argument was the role of a Castilian state centralist nationalism as the ideological focus point of protest action amongst various peripheral movements from the 19th to the 20th centuries that may have under different circumstances developed into purely labour, Marxist or other social movements. The importance of Conversi’s work lies in his ability to show that it was the centre’s insistence on creating an ethno-centric view of Spanish national identity that would create counter-identities upon the state’s periphery. Where Basque and Catalan movements differed from one another lay in the way the state chose to deal with their individual social, political and cultural opposition to official state ideology. They are viewed as reactionary identities forged in socio-cultural protest that have gained legitimacy amongst their population as bulwarks to somewhat unwanted centralist encroachment throughout the past 120 years. A good study for those attempting to link social movement activism with the rise of nationalism as a means of community protest. [Pero Ercegovac]


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Summary: Coogan provides one of the few comprehensive histories of the Irish Republican Army from its roots in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries to the early 1990s. The text contains an extraordinary body of information, but this information is often poorly organized. Given the often confusing nature of the Irish nationalist movement, particularly during the 1970s and 1980s when the IRA fractured into a number of splinter groups, this book can be difficult to follow. Although scholars of Irish nationalism should not ignore it, most readers would do well to begin exploring the history of the IRA through other channels. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: This book makes two noteworthy contributions to nationalism studies. First, it demonstrates the exact nature of national literary canons’ importance to the self-images of nations. Second, it shows how the conceptual tools created by the late, great sociologist Pierre Bourdieu might be turned onto some of the analytic problems that nationalism presents.

Corse uses the theoretical and methodological techniques of social constructivism to challenge the belief—still held by many literary theorists—that national literary canons "naturally" reflect the "character" of the nations from which they arise. They are instead "an integral part of the process by which nation-states create themselves and distinguish themselves from other nations" (7). But Corse complicates our understanding of national literatures by drawing a distinction between the functions performed by canonical literature, on the one hand, and contemporary high-culture literature, on the other: "Canonical [national] literature is driven by differentiation and chosen in opposition to the [national] ‘other.’ Contemporary prize-winning literature is driven by an ongoing national cultural dialogue and chosen within that tradition" (128). It is here that Corse employs Bourdieu’s concepts of "the field of restricted cultural production" and "the field of large-scale cultural production." The former field is characterized by struggles among cultural elites for symbolic power as it is manifested in the value of highbrow cultural products, while the latter field is characterized by "the dominance of economic considerations…and popular literature’s resultant status as a commodity [oriented] toward the universal or widest possible audience" (9). According to Corse, contemporary prize-winning literature (which is an important component of the field of restricted cultural production) differentiates itself not against other nations’ contemporary prize-winning literature, but rather against popular literature (which, because it is produced for consumption by the widest possible audience, does not deal in any substantial way with national difference). The curious conclusion that one draws from this analysis is that although contemporary prize-winning novels are viewed as national canonical-literature-in-the-making, they are not important to the discourse of nationalism until their canonization. It would appear, then, that it is canonicity itself that gives recent canonical works their "national" credentials, rather than any particular features in their texts. [Tom Donahue]


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Summary: In this book, historian Mike Cronin takes important steps toward understanding Irish nationalism by moving beyond the usual scholarly focus on politics or the "high culture" of the Gaelic revival in the late nineteenth century. By addressing the relationship of Gaelic Games (Hurling and Gaelic Football), soccer and Irish nationalism, Cronin is able to strongly support his argument that nationalism is a "mobile and historically contested ideology." He argues that Irish nationalism is expressed both through Gaelic Games, with their more parochial popularity, and soccer—the world’s most popular spectator sport. It is not necessary that a sport be contested internationally to illicit a national response and, indeed, having unique "national" sports has had important implications for Irish history from the foundation of the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA) in 1884 right up to the present day. Cronin’s narrative is at its most powerful when he describes the symbolic and political role that the GAA and league soccer have played in Northern Ireland since the 1890s. It is to the author’s credit that his discussion, while significant for those interested in Ireland specifically, is equally important to those concerned with the continued strength of nationalism more broadly. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: This work collects articles on nationalism from Enlightenment intellectuals (Hagel, Rousseau, etc.) to twentieth century political figures (Hitler, Lenin, Stalin) and modern scholars (Hobsbawm, Waltzer, etc.), providing a sort of primary source intellectual history of the development of the idea of nations. Those seeking a summary of modern debates about nations will find this volume unhelpful as important scholars like Anthony D. Smith are not represented. It is a very useful volume for those seeking to see how ideas about nations and nationalism have changed, or have been represented by various ideological groups from the 17th century to the present day. Articles/authors included in this volume are: Introduction by Micheline R. Ishay; JEAN-JACQUES ROUSSEAU: The Geneva Manuscript, Judgment on Saint-Pierre's Project for Perpetual Peace, The Government of Poland; EMMANUEL JOSEPH SIEYLS: What Is the Third Estate?; IMMANUEL KANT: The Metaphysics of Morals; JOHANN GOTTFRIED VON HERDER: Reflections on the Philosophy of the History of Mankind; JOHANN GOTTLIEB FICHTE: The Foundations of Natural Law According to the Principles of the Theory of Science, Addresses to the German Nation; GEORG WILHELM FRIEDRICH HEGEL: The Philosophy of Right The Philosophy of World History; GIUSEPPE MAZZINI: The Duties of Man; JOHN STUART MILL: Considerations on Representative Government; LORD ACTON: Nationality; MAX WEBER: Economic Policy and the National Interest in Imperial Germany; THEODOR HERZL: A Jewish State; EDMUND BURKE: Reflections on the Revolution in France; ERNEST RENAN: What Is a Nation?; LEOPOLD RANKE: The Great Powers; ELIE KEDOURIE: Nationalism; ALEKSANDR SOLZHENITSYN: Rebuilding Russia; KARL MARX AND FRIEDRICH ENGELS: Manifesto of the Communist Party; OTTO BAUER: The Nationalities Question and Social Democracy; JOSEPH STALIN: Marxism and the National-Colonial Question; ROSA LUXEMBURG: The National Question and Autonomy; VLADIMIR ILYICH LENIN: The Right of Nations to Self-Determination; CHARLES MAURRAS: The Future of French Nationalism; BENITO MUSSOLINI: Fascism; ADOLF HITLER: Mein Kampf; SUN YAT-SEN: Three Principles of the People; JAWAHARLAL NEHRU: The Discovery of India; SATI AL-HUSRI: Muslim Unity and Arab Unity; AYATOLLAH KHOMEINI: Islamic Government; LÉOPOLD SÉDAR SENGHOR: On African Socialism; FRANTZ FANON: The Wretched of the Earth; ABRAHAM LINCOLN: First Inaugural Address, March 1861; RANDOLPH BOURNE: Trans-National America; MARCUS GARVEY: The Resurrection of the Negro; WOODROW WILSON: Address to a Joint Session of Congress, January 1918; REINHOLD NIEBUHR: Moral Man and Immoral Society; MICHAEL WALZER: The New Tribalism: Notes on a Difficult Problem; JORGEN HABERMAS: Citizenship and National Identity: Some Reflections on the Future of Europe; JEREMY BRECHER: "The National Question" Reconsidered from an Ecological Perspective; and ERIC HOBSBAWM: Nationalism in the Late Twentieth Century. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: Visualizing Ireland: National Identity and the Pictorial Tradition makes a useful contribution to both Irish historiography and the literature on nationalism more generally. It should be of interest to scholars hoping to develop an understanding of the relationship between artistic expression and national identity. Although this collection of essays focuses entirely on Irish topics, several authors make a special effort to suggest how historians can make use of watercolors, wood-cuts, and paintings to better understand national identity. While not all essays are equally convincing, the level of scholarship is generally impressive and avoids the unevenness of many essay collections. As a rule, each article focuses on a painting or group of paintings and works to demonstrate how the painting(s) in question reveal important information about the time period during which it was produced. Especially interesting articles look at images of the West of Ireland in the final years of the nineteenth century, attitudes towards British society in the years proceeding 1916, the thatched cottage in Irish national consciousness, and nationalist images of peasants immediately following the Famine. [E. Zuelow]


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Summary: In this book, Deutsch hopes to provide methodological tools for answering the following questions which he argues have not been addressed by the literature on nationalism: "What...is ethnic nationality? Under what conditions will a government or a political organization find it an asset? Under which a liability? What is the relation of this nationality to economic life, to incomes, opportunities, and expectations? And how may it become so important to individuals as to override their economic interests, and even their interest in self-preservation?" (v). To begin answering these questions, Deutsch devotes his first chapter to a survey of social science accounts of nationalism. His second chapter reviews resources in several disciplines of social science which might aid him in his study. His third chapter discusses implications of these studies. The forth chapter posits his theory "of a people as a community of social communications" (vi). The fifth chapter discusses tests which might be used to test this theory. The sixth chapter offers "quantitative concepts" which might be applied to aid in predicting national assimilation or differentiation of mixed populations. HIs seventh chapter adds institutional and qualitative factors to his analysis. The eighth chapter adds a discussion of national consciousness and his final chapter sums up the findings. Deutsch does not provide any profound answers to the questions posed at the outset of his study. He writes: "If I believed that this were a sufficient basis for an adequate understanding of nationalism, I should have written a very different book from the one before you" (190). [E. Zuelow]